The liverpool adverse events profile: Relation to AED use and mood

Rosemary June Panelli, Christine Kilpatrick, Susan M. Moore, Zelko Matkovic, Wendyl J. D'Souza, Terence J. O'Brien

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

84 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: The Liverpool Adverse Events Profile (LAEP) is used as a systematic measure of adverse effects from antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). This study evaluated LAEP in newly diagnosed seizure patients, and examined the relation between LAEP, anxiety, and depression. Methods: Seizure patients seen in the two First Seizure Clinics were categorized into group A (AEDs commenced after assessment), group B (AEDs commenced before assessment), and group C (no AEDs). LAEP and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were completed at baseline (n = 164) and 3 months (n = 103). Each LAEP symptom was assessed for baseline frequency, 3-month frequency, and frequency change over a 3-month period. Global scores for LAEP and HADS were analysed at baseline and 3 months. Results: Symptom-reporting patterns were similar between groups. However, increased frequency over a 3-month period occurred for 12 symptoms in group A, 10 in group B, and one in group C. Global LAEP and HADS showed no significant group differences at baseline or changes over a 3-month period. Multiple regression revealed that HADS scores predicted LAEP global scores better than did AED status. Multivariate analyses of variance demonstrated that increased reporting of 16 of 19 LAEP symptoms was significantly related to higher anxiety and depression rates. Conclusions: In a First Seizure Clinic, LAEP detects changes in specific symptom frequencies when used as a repeated, symptom-by-symptom measure. Increased symptom frequency is associated with diagnostic category/AED treatment, anxiety, and depression. Global LAEP scores do not illustrate differences in symptom reporting between patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)456-463
Number of pages8
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Adverse effects
  • Antiepileptic drugs
  • Anxiety
  • Depression

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