The Japanese Probation Service: a third sector template?

Tom Ellis, Chris Lewis, Mai Sato

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The use of probation in Japan is similar in some respects to probation in England and Wales (E&W) and unrecognizable in others. This article provides an outline of the structure and operation of probation in Japan and draws comparisons and contrasts with probation in England and Wales. It is intended to provide an overview for those who know little about Japanese criminal justice in general and about Japanese probation in particular. The focus in on accessible English language sources that will enable readers to follow up their interest and deepen their knowledge.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)333-344
Number of pages12
JournalProbation Journal
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • community justice
  • corrections
  • imprisonment
  • Japan
  • offender management
  • probation volunteers

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