The investigation of bone fracture healing under intramembranous and endochondral ossification

Smriti Ghimire, Saeed Miramini, Glenn Edwards, Randi Rotne, Jiake Xu, Peter Ebeling, Lihai Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


After trauma, fractured bone starts healing directly through bone union or indirectly through callus formation process. Intramembranous and endochondral ossification are two commonly known mechanisms of indirect healing. The present study investigated the bone fracture healing under intramembranous and endochondral ossification by developing theoretical models in conjunction with performing a series of animal experiments. Using experimentally determined mean bone densities in sheep tibia stabilized by the Locking Compression Plate (LCP) fixation system, the research outcomes showed that intramembranous and endochondral ossification can be described by Hill Function with two unique sets of function parameters in mechanical stimuli mediated fracture healing. Two different thresholds exist within the range of mechanical simulation index which could trigger significant intramembranous and endochondral ossification, with a relatively higher bone formation rate of endochondral ossification than that of intramembranous ossification. Furthermore, the increase of flexibility of the LCP system and the use of titanium LCP could potentially promote uniform bone formation across the fracture gap, ultimately better healing outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100740
Number of pages11
JournalBone Reports
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


  • Bone fracture healing
  • Endochondral ossification
  • Intramembranous ossification
  • Locking compression plate
  • Mechano-regulation
  • Titanium

Cite this