The intensity and motion of hybrid cyclones in the Australian region in a composite potential vorticity framework

Julian F. Quinting, Michael J. Reeder, Jennifer L. Catto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Hybrid cyclones (HCs) in the Australian region typically reach their peak intensity in an amplified flow comprising upper-tropospheric ridges upstream and downstream of the cyclone and a north–south elongated trough. Nonetheless, there is considerable case-to-case variability. Taking a composite viewpoint, the present study investigates how such variations in the upper-tropospheric potential vorticity (PV) anomalies affect the subsequent intensity and motion of HCs in the Australian region. First, cyclones are grouped into four clusters with structurally similar environments through a k-means clustering of the 315 K PV anomaly. The clusters reveal that HCs can be associated with a north–south elongated trough (Cluster 1), a PV cut-off (Cluster 2), and cyclonically breaking troughs (Clusters 3 and 4). Second, the effect of these features on the intensity and tracks is quantified using piecewise PV inversion. The maximum intensity of cyclones in Cluster 1 is largely determined by their upper-tropospheric cyclonic PV anomaly. Conversely, diabatically generated lower-tropospheric PV anomalies dominate the intensity of cyclones in Clusters 3 and 4. In these two clusters, the cyclonically breaking trough and a downstream ridge induce an anomalous northeasterly low-level flow across the cyclone centre. The downstream ridge is most pronounced in Cluster 4, leading to the greatest poleward cyclone displacement compared to the other clusters. In Clusters 1 and 2, the upper-level PV anomaly primarily slows the eastward motion of the cyclones. In agreement with recent idealized studies, the analysis suggests that the effect of upper-tropospheric PV anomalies on the poleward motion of HCs is analogous to the beta-gyres that influence the motion of tropical cyclones.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)273-287
Number of pages15
JournalQuarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
Volume145
Issue number718
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • cut-off
  • hybrid cyclone
  • piecewise potential vorticity inversion
  • wave breaking

Cite this

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title = "The intensity and motion of hybrid cyclones in the Australian region in a composite potential vorticity framework",
abstract = "Hybrid cyclones (HCs) in the Australian region typically reach their peak intensity in an amplified flow comprising upper-tropospheric ridges upstream and downstream of the cyclone and a north–south elongated trough. Nonetheless, there is considerable case-to-case variability. Taking a composite viewpoint, the present study investigates how such variations in the upper-tropospheric potential vorticity (PV) anomalies affect the subsequent intensity and motion of HCs in the Australian region. First, cyclones are grouped into four clusters with structurally similar environments through a k-means clustering of the 315 K PV anomaly. The clusters reveal that HCs can be associated with a north–south elongated trough (Cluster 1), a PV cut-off (Cluster 2), and cyclonically breaking troughs (Clusters 3 and 4). Second, the effect of these features on the intensity and tracks is quantified using piecewise PV inversion. The maximum intensity of cyclones in Cluster 1 is largely determined by their upper-tropospheric cyclonic PV anomaly. Conversely, diabatically generated lower-tropospheric PV anomalies dominate the intensity of cyclones in Clusters 3 and 4. In these two clusters, the cyclonically breaking trough and a downstream ridge induce an anomalous northeasterly low-level flow across the cyclone centre. The downstream ridge is most pronounced in Cluster 4, leading to the greatest poleward cyclone displacement compared to the other clusters. In Clusters 1 and 2, the upper-level PV anomaly primarily slows the eastward motion of the cyclones. In agreement with recent idealized studies, the analysis suggests that the effect of upper-tropospheric PV anomalies on the poleward motion of HCs is analogous to the beta-gyres that influence the motion of tropical cyclones.",
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year = "2019",
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The intensity and motion of hybrid cyclones in the Australian region in a composite potential vorticity framework. / Quinting, Julian F.; Reeder, Michael J.; Catto, Jennifer L.

In: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 145, No. 718, 2019, p. 273-287.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The intensity and motion of hybrid cyclones in the Australian region in a composite potential vorticity framework

AU - Quinting, Julian F.

AU - Reeder, Michael J.

AU - Catto, Jennifer L.

PY - 2019

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N2 - Hybrid cyclones (HCs) in the Australian region typically reach their peak intensity in an amplified flow comprising upper-tropospheric ridges upstream and downstream of the cyclone and a north–south elongated trough. Nonetheless, there is considerable case-to-case variability. Taking a composite viewpoint, the present study investigates how such variations in the upper-tropospheric potential vorticity (PV) anomalies affect the subsequent intensity and motion of HCs in the Australian region. First, cyclones are grouped into four clusters with structurally similar environments through a k-means clustering of the 315 K PV anomaly. The clusters reveal that HCs can be associated with a north–south elongated trough (Cluster 1), a PV cut-off (Cluster 2), and cyclonically breaking troughs (Clusters 3 and 4). Second, the effect of these features on the intensity and tracks is quantified using piecewise PV inversion. The maximum intensity of cyclones in Cluster 1 is largely determined by their upper-tropospheric cyclonic PV anomaly. Conversely, diabatically generated lower-tropospheric PV anomalies dominate the intensity of cyclones in Clusters 3 and 4. In these two clusters, the cyclonically breaking trough and a downstream ridge induce an anomalous northeasterly low-level flow across the cyclone centre. The downstream ridge is most pronounced in Cluster 4, leading to the greatest poleward cyclone displacement compared to the other clusters. In Clusters 1 and 2, the upper-level PV anomaly primarily slows the eastward motion of the cyclones. In agreement with recent idealized studies, the analysis suggests that the effect of upper-tropospheric PV anomalies on the poleward motion of HCs is analogous to the beta-gyres that influence the motion of tropical cyclones.

AB - Hybrid cyclones (HCs) in the Australian region typically reach their peak intensity in an amplified flow comprising upper-tropospheric ridges upstream and downstream of the cyclone and a north–south elongated trough. Nonetheless, there is considerable case-to-case variability. Taking a composite viewpoint, the present study investigates how such variations in the upper-tropospheric potential vorticity (PV) anomalies affect the subsequent intensity and motion of HCs in the Australian region. First, cyclones are grouped into four clusters with structurally similar environments through a k-means clustering of the 315 K PV anomaly. The clusters reveal that HCs can be associated with a north–south elongated trough (Cluster 1), a PV cut-off (Cluster 2), and cyclonically breaking troughs (Clusters 3 and 4). Second, the effect of these features on the intensity and tracks is quantified using piecewise PV inversion. The maximum intensity of cyclones in Cluster 1 is largely determined by their upper-tropospheric cyclonic PV anomaly. Conversely, diabatically generated lower-tropospheric PV anomalies dominate the intensity of cyclones in Clusters 3 and 4. In these two clusters, the cyclonically breaking trough and a downstream ridge induce an anomalous northeasterly low-level flow across the cyclone centre. The downstream ridge is most pronounced in Cluster 4, leading to the greatest poleward cyclone displacement compared to the other clusters. In Clusters 1 and 2, the upper-level PV anomaly primarily slows the eastward motion of the cyclones. In agreement with recent idealized studies, the analysis suggests that the effect of upper-tropospheric PV anomalies on the poleward motion of HCs is analogous to the beta-gyres that influence the motion of tropical cyclones.

KW - cut-off

KW - hybrid cyclone

KW - piecewise potential vorticity inversion

KW - wave breaking

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U2 - 10.1002/qj.3430

DO - 10.1002/qj.3430

M3 - Article

VL - 145

SP - 273

EP - 287

JO - Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society

JF - Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society

SN - 0035-9009

IS - 718

ER -