The influence of renal function on the enantioselective pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ketoprofen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

PJ Hayball, RL Nation, F. Bochner, LN Sansom, MJ Ahern, MD Smith

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1. Single oral doses of 100 mg racemic ketoprofen were given to 15 patients (age range: 51‐79 years) with rheumatoid arthritis and a range of creatinine clearances (CLCR) from 26 to 159 ml min‐1. 2. The fractions unbound of (R)‐ and (S)‐ketoprofen in plasma were determined for each subject after in vitro addition of rac‐ketoprofen (enantiomer range: 1.00‐6.00 micrograms ml‐1) to pre‐dose plasma. 3. An index of the antiplatelet effect of ketoprofen in vitro was measured as inhibition of platelet thromboxane B2 (TXB2) generation during the controlled clotting of whole blood (pre‐dose) spiked with rac‐ ketoprofen. 4. In vivo studies revealed significant associations (P < 0.05) between the reciprocal of AUC for both unbound and total (bound plus unbound) (S)‐ketoprofen and CLCR. Corresponding relationships were also observed for the (R)‐enantiomer of ketoprofen. In addition, the half‐life of each enantiomer was negatively correlated with CLCR. There was a positive relationship between the 24 h urinary recovery of combined non‐conjugated and conjugated (R)‐ketoprofen and CLCR while that for the (S)‐stereoisomer failed to reach statistical significance (P > 0.05). 5. There was no difference between AUC for (R)‐ and (S)‐ ketoprofen for either unbound or total drug. 6. The mean +/‐ s.d. percentage unbound of (S)‐ketoprofen in plasma (0.801 +/‐ 0.194%) exceeded (P < 0.05) the corresponding value for its optical antipode (0.724 +/‐ 0.149%). The percentage unbound of the (S)‐enantiomer was higher at 6.00 micrograms ml‐1 than that at enantiomer concentrations of 3.50 micrograms ml‐1 and below, where it was invariant. The percentage unbound of (R)‐ketoprofen was independent of plasma concentration up to 6.00 micrograms ml‐1. There were no correlations between the percentage unbound of each enantiomer and either serum albumin concentration or CLCR. 7. The relationship between the serum concentration of unbound (S)‐ketoprofen and the percentage inhibition of platelet TXB2 generation was described by a sigmoidal Emax equation for each patient. There was no correlation between the unbound concentration of (S)‐ketoprofen in serum required to inhibit platelet TXB2 generation by 50% (EC50) and CLCR. The mean +/‐ s.d. EC50 was 0.216 +/‐ 0.143 ng ml‐1. 8. These data indicate that diminished renal function is associated with an increased exposure to unbound (S)‐ ketoprofen, presumably due to regeneration of parent aglycone arising from the hydrolysis of accumulated acyl‐glucuronide conjugates. The apparent sensitivity of platelet cyclo‐oxygenase to the inhibitory effect of (S)‐ketoprofen was not influenced by renal function. 1993 The British Pharmacological Society

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)185-193
Number of pages9
JournalBritish Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1993
Externally publishedYes

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