The influence of personal and environmental factors on typically developing children’s activity participation

Caitlin Murphy, Ted Brown, Karen Stagnitti

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Participation is a multidimensional concept that has evolved from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as one’s engagement in life. This study investigated the impact that personal and environmental factors have on typically developing children’s activity participation (n = 18). Children and parents/caregivers completed self-report questionnaires. Children completed the Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment & Preferences for Activities of Children (CAPE/PAC) and the Children’s Leisure Assessment Scale (CLASS) while parents completed the Children Participation Questionnaire (school-aged) (CPQS), Performance Skill Questionnaire (school-aged) (PSQS), and Environmental Restriction Questionnaire (school-aged) (ERQS). Pearson correlations were performed to determine whether there were correlations between the independent variables (PSQS and ERQS) and dependent variables (CAPE, PAC, CLASS, CPQS), total scores and subscale scores. The Pearson r correlation analyses were also bootstrapped. Linear regressions analyses were used to determine whether the positive correlations identified between the variables were predictive. Personal factors (which included the child’s motor, process, and communication skills) were predictive of five out of the six dimensions of participation, diversity (40.8% variance accounted for in the dependent variables), intensity (32% variance), where (54.3% variance), with whom (30% variance), and enjoyment (54% variance). Environmental factors that include the child’s community, educational, and home environment were predictive of all six dimensions of participation. Diversity (32.4% variance accounted for in the dependent variables), intensity (32.8% variance), where (22.4% variance), with whom (25.3% variance), enjoyment (44.9% variance), and preference (49.1% variance). The results indicated that motor, process, and communication skills were significantly predictive of a child’s diversity and intensity of participation, with whom and where they completed activities, their enjoyment and parental satisfaction. Community and education environments were also found to be predictive of these elements of participation, while the home was predictive of a child’s activity preference.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)68-85
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Occupational Therapy, Schools, and Early Intervention
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2019


  • activity
  • children
  • environmental factors
  • leisure
  • Participation
  • personal factors
  • preference

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