The influence of inter-jet spacing and jet-swirl interaction on Flame Image Velocimetry (FIV) derived flow fields in a small-bore diesel engine

Jinxin Yang, Lingzhe Rao, Charitha de Silva, Sanghoon Kook

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5 Citations (Scopus)


This study applies Flame Image Velocimetry (FIV) to show the in-flame flow field development with an emphasis on the jet-jet interaction and jet-swirl interaction phenomena in a single-cylinder small-bore optically accessible diesel engine. Two-hole nozzle injectors with three different inter-jet spacing angles of 45°, 90° and 180° are prepared to cause different levels of jet-jet interaction. The engine has a swirl ratio of 1.7, which is used to evaluate jet-swirl interaction of the selected 180° inter-jet spacing nozzle. High-speed soot luminosity imaging was performed at a high frame rate of 45 kHz for the FIV processing. For each inter-jet spacing angle, a total of 100 individual combustion cycles were recorded to address the cyclic variations. The ensemble averaged flow fields are shown to illustrate detailed flow structures while the Reynolds decomposition using spatial filtering is applied to analyse turbulence intensity. The results showed reduced bulk flow magnitude and turbulence intensity at smaller inter-jet spacing, suggesting the two opposed wall-jet heads colliding immediately after the jet impingement on the wall can cause flow suppression effects. This raised a concern on the mixing as lower inter-jet spacing creates more fuel-rich mixtures in the jet-jet interaction region. Despite lower flow magnitude, the cyclic variation was also estimated higher for narrower inter-jet spacing, which is another drawback of the significant jet-jet interaction. Regarding the jet-swirl interaction, the wall-jet head penetrating on the up-swirl side showed lower bulk flow magnitude as the counter-flow arrangement suppressed the flow, similar with the narrower interact-jet spacing results. However, the turbulence intensity was measured higher on the up-swirl side, suggesting the relatively weaker swirl flow vectors opposed to the penetrating wall-jet head could in fact enhance the mixing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2060-2072
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Engine Research
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Flame image velocimetry
  • in-flame flow field
  • inter-jet spacing
  • jet-jet interaction
  • jet-swirl interaction

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