In this study, we analyze the effects of Delaware's welfare reform program on child maltreatment using child protective services data and an experimental design. The sample includes 2,138 single-parent cases that were subject to Delaware's welfare reform and 1,821 randomly assigned cases that initially were not subject to welfare reform. Results show small increases in child neglect but no effects on physical abuse, sexual abuse, or foster care placement. The most consistent impacts on neglect appear in subgroups with pre-existing disadvantages, such as a previous history of child maltreatment, long-term welfare receipt, and low education. In descriptive analyses, we find that the risk of neglect increases in the months preceding a case closure due to financial sanctions and then declines in subsequent months.