The impacts of extra-territorial voting: Swings, interregnums and feedback effects in New Zealand elections from 1914 to 2011

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How are elections affected by the votes of people living abroad? The majority of states now allow extra-territorial voting in some form, but the research literature on this topic remains underdeveloped. Moreover, even though extra-territorial voting raises issues about the relationship between territory and political obligation that are relevant to political geographers, political geography has been under-represented in discussions on the topic. Against this background, this research examines a century of overseas voting impacts in New Zealand, a country with an unusually long recorded history of such activity. The study identifies three types of extra-territorial voting impact over the period 1914-2011, referred to as swings, interregnums and feedback effects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalPolitical Geography
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Extra-territorial voting
  • Feedback effects
  • Interregnums
  • Migration
  • New Zealand
  • Political transnationalism
  • Swings

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