The immune responses to bacterial antigens encountered in vivo at mucosal surfaces

Gordon Dougan, Marjan Ghaem-Maghami, Derek Pickard, Gad Frankel, Gill Douce, Simon Clare, Sarah Dunstan, Cameron Simmons

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Mammals have evolved a sophisticated immune system for handling antigens encountered at their mucosal surfaces. The way in which mucosally delivered antigens are handled influences our ability to design effective mucosal vaccines. Live attenuated derivatives of pathogens are one route towards the development of mucosal vaccines. However, some molecules, described as mucosal immunogens, are inherently immunogenic at mucosal surfaces. Studies on mucosal immunogens may facilitate the identification of common characteristics that contribute to mucosal immunogenicity and aid the development of novel, non-living mucosal vaccines and immunostimulators.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)705-712
Number of pages8
JournalPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Issue number1397
Publication statusPublished - 29 May 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Citrobacter
  • Enterotoxins
  • IgA
  • Mucosal vaccines

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