The human transcriptome during nontyphoid Salmonella and HIV coinfection reveals attenuated NFκB-mediated inflammation and persistent cell cycle disruption

Fernanda Schreiber, David John Lynn, Angela Houston, Joanna Peters, Gershom Mwafulirwa, B. Brett Finlay, Fiona S L Brinkman, Robert E.W. Hancock, Robert S. Heyderman, Gordon Dougan, Melita A Gordon

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19 Citations (Scopus)


Background. Invasive nontyphoid Salmonella (iNTS) disease is common and severe in adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Africa. We previously observed that ex vivo macrophages from HIV-infected subjects challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium exhibit dysregulated proinflammatory cytokine responses. Methods. We studied the transcriptional response in whole blood from HIV-positive patients during acute and convalescent iNTS disease compared to other invasive bacterial diseases, and to HIV-positive and -negative controls. Results. During iNTS disease, there was a remarkable lack of a coordinated inflammatory or innate immune signaling response. Few interferon γ (IFNγ)-induced genes or Toll-like receptor/transcription factor nuclear factor κB (TLR/NFκB) gene pathways were upregulated in expression. Ex vivo lipopolysacharide (LPS) or flagellin stimulation of whole blood, however, showed that convalescent iNTS subjects and controls were competent to mount prominent TLR/NFκB-associated patterns of mRNA expression. In contrast, HIV-positive patients with other invasive bacterial infections (Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae) displayed a pronounced proinflammatory innate immune transcriptional response. There was also upregulated mRNA expression in cell cycle, DNA replication, translation and repair, and viral replication pathways during iNTS. These patterns persisted for up to 2 months into convalescence. Conclusions. Attenuation of NFκB-mediated inflammation and dysregulation of cell cycle and DNA-function gene pathway expression are key features of the interplay between iNTS and HIV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1237-1245
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2011
Externally publishedYes

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