The flow dynamics of an extremely large volume pyroclastic flow, the 2.08-Ma Cerro Galan Ignimbrite, NW Argentina, and comparison with other flow types

Raymond Cas, Heather Wright, Christopher Folkes, Chiara Lesti, Massimiliano Porreca, Guido Giordano, Jose Viramonte

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    74 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The 2.08-Ma Cerro Galan Ignimbrite (CGI) represents a > 630-km(3) dense rock equivalent (VEI 8) eruption from the long-lived Cerro Galan magma system (similar to 6 Ma). It is a crystal-rich (35-60 ), pumice (<10 generally) and lithic-poor (<5 generally) rhyodacitic ignimbrite, lacking a preceding plinian fallout deposit. The CGI is preserved up to 80 km from the structural margins of the caldera, but almost certainly was deposited up to 100 km from the caldera in some places. Only one emplacement unit is preserved in proximal to medial settings and in most distal settings, suggesting constant flow conditions, but where the pyroclastic flow moved into a palaeotopography of substantial valleys and ridges, it interacted with valley walls, resulting in flow instabilities that generated multiple depositional units, often separated by pyroclastic surge deposits. The CGI preserves a widespread sub-horizontal fabric, defined by aligned elongate pumice and lithic clasts, and minerals (e.g. biotite). A sub-horizontal anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility fabric is defined by minute magnetic minerals in all localities where it has been analysed. The CGI is poor in both vent-derived ( accessory ) lithics and locally derived lithics from the ground surface ( accidental ) lithics. Locally derived lithics are small (<20 cm) and were not transported far from source points. All data suggest that the pyroclastic flow system producing the CGI was characterised throughout by high sedimentation rates, resulting from high particle concentration and suppressed turbulence at the depositional boundary layer, despite being a low aspect ratio ignimbrite. Based on these features, we question whether high velocity and momentum are necessary to account for extensive flow mobility. It is proposed that the CGI was deposited by a pyroclastic flow system that developed a substantial, high particle concentration granular under-flow, which flowed with suppressed turbulence. High particle concentration and fine-ash content hindered gas loss and maintained flow mobility. In order to explain the contemporaneous maintenance of high particle concentration, high sedimentation rate at the depositional boundary layer and a high level of mobility, it is also proposed that the flow(s) was continuously supplied at a high mass feeding rate. It is also proposed that internal gas pressure within the flow, directed downwards onto the substrate over which the flow was passing, reduced the friction between the flow and the substrate and also enhanced its mobility. The pervasive sub-horizontal fabric of aligned pumice, lithic and even biotite crystals indicates a consistent horizontal shear force existed during transport and deposition in the basal granular flow, consistent with the existence of a laminar, shearing, granular flow regime during the final stages of transport and deposition.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1583 - 1609
    Number of pages27
    JournalBulletin of Volcanology
    Volume73
    Issue number10
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2011

    Cite this