The Fennema-Sherman mathematics as a male domain scale reexamined

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The Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales (MAS) have been used extensively in research on gender differences in mathematics learning outcomes. The MAS comprise 9 scales measuring attitudes related to mathematics learning, including Mathematics as a Male Domain. The construct "mathematics as a male domain" remains a critical variable in explorations of the continued disadvantage experienced by females in the field of mathematics. We present recent research evidence that indicates that several items in the Mathematics as a Male Domain scale of the MAS may no longer be valid. In light of this evidence, it is appropriate to consider revisions to the scale to ensure that it continues to measure accurately its originally operationalized construct.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)346-348
Number of pages3
JournalJournal for Research in Mathematics Education
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 1999


  • Attitudes
  • Equity
  • Gender issues
  • Social factors
  • Survey data

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