Arachidonylethanolamide (AEA), an endocannabinoid, regulates both appetite and the immune system. The present study investigated in the rat the ability of AEA (1mg/kg, s.c.) to attenuate the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced (100mug/kg, i.p.) changes in metabolic indices and Fos expression within hypothalamic and mesolimbic systems. AEA attenuated LPS-induced fever and hypophagia, abolished LPS-induced decreases in Fos expression within the arcuate and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, while both AEA and LPS independently increased Fos expression within the nucleus accumbens. These results highlight the importance of hypothalamic and mesolimbic systems in the regulation of appetite and energy partitioning.