The effects of saline or albumin resuscitation on acid-base status and serum electrolytes

Rinaldo Bellomo, Hiroshi Morimatsu, Craig French, Louise Cole, David Story, Shigehiko Uchino, Toshio Naka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To test whether fluid resuscitation with normal saline or 4% albumin is associated with differential changes in acid-base status and serum electrolytes. DESIGN: Nested cohort study. SETTING: Three general intensive care units. PATIENTS: Six hundred and ninety-one critically ill patients. INTERVENTIONS: Randomization of patients to receive blinded solutions of either 4% human albumin or normal saline for fluid resuscitation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Albumin was given to 339 patients and saline to 352. At baseline, both groups had a similar serum bicarbonate, albumin, and base excess levels. After randomization, bicarbonate and base excess increased significantly and similarly over time (p < .0001). On multivariate analysis, fluid resuscitation with albumin predicted a smaller increase in pH (p = .0051), bicarbonate (p = .034), and base excess (p = .015). The amount of fluid was an independent predictor of pH (p < .0001), serum chloride (p < .0001), calcium (p = .0001), bicarbonate (p = .0002), and base excess (p < .0001) on the first day of treatment. In patients who received >3 L of fluids in the first 24 hrs, albumin administration was associated with a significantly greater increase in serum chloride (p = .0026). Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and the presence of sepsis also independently predicted changes in several electrolytes and acid-base variables. CONCLUSIONS: When comparing albumin and saline, the choice and amount of resuscitation fluid are independent predictors of acid-base status and serum electrolytes. When large volumes are given, albumin administration leads to a higher chloride concentration. However, overall differences between the types of fluid are minor, whereas the volume of fluid administered is a much stronger predictor of such changes, which are also influenced by illness severity and the passage of time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2891-2897
Number of pages7
JournalCritical Care Medicine
Volume34
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2006
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Acid-base balance
  • Acidemia
  • Acidosis
  • Albumin
  • Chloride
  • Ion gap
  • Normal saline
  • Sodium

Cite this

Bellomo, Rinaldo ; Morimatsu, Hiroshi ; French, Craig ; Cole, Louise ; Story, David ; Uchino, Shigehiko ; Naka, Toshio. / The effects of saline or albumin resuscitation on acid-base status and serum electrolytes. In: Critical Care Medicine. 2006 ; Vol. 34, No. 12. pp. 2891-2897.
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abstract = "OBJECTIVE: To test whether fluid resuscitation with normal saline or 4{\%} albumin is associated with differential changes in acid-base status and serum electrolytes. DESIGN: Nested cohort study. SETTING: Three general intensive care units. PATIENTS: Six hundred and ninety-one critically ill patients. INTERVENTIONS: Randomization of patients to receive blinded solutions of either 4{\%} human albumin or normal saline for fluid resuscitation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Albumin was given to 339 patients and saline to 352. At baseline, both groups had a similar serum bicarbonate, albumin, and base excess levels. After randomization, bicarbonate and base excess increased significantly and similarly over time (p < .0001). On multivariate analysis, fluid resuscitation with albumin predicted a smaller increase in pH (p = .0051), bicarbonate (p = .034), and base excess (p = .015). The amount of fluid was an independent predictor of pH (p < .0001), serum chloride (p < .0001), calcium (p = .0001), bicarbonate (p = .0002), and base excess (p < .0001) on the first day of treatment. In patients who received >3 L of fluids in the first 24 hrs, albumin administration was associated with a significantly greater increase in serum chloride (p = .0026). Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and the presence of sepsis also independently predicted changes in several electrolytes and acid-base variables. CONCLUSIONS: When comparing albumin and saline, the choice and amount of resuscitation fluid are independent predictors of acid-base status and serum electrolytes. When large volumes are given, albumin administration leads to a higher chloride concentration. However, overall differences between the types of fluid are minor, whereas the volume of fluid administered is a much stronger predictor of such changes, which are also influenced by illness severity and the passage of time.",
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The effects of saline or albumin resuscitation on acid-base status and serum electrolytes. / Bellomo, Rinaldo; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; French, Craig; Cole, Louise; Story, David; Uchino, Shigehiko; Naka, Toshio.

In: Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 34, No. 12, 01.12.2006, p. 2891-2897.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - The effects of saline or albumin resuscitation on acid-base status and serum electrolytes

AU - Bellomo, Rinaldo

AU - Morimatsu, Hiroshi

AU - French, Craig

AU - Cole, Louise

AU - Story, David

AU - Uchino, Shigehiko

AU - Naka, Toshio

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AB - OBJECTIVE: To test whether fluid resuscitation with normal saline or 4% albumin is associated with differential changes in acid-base status and serum electrolytes. DESIGN: Nested cohort study. SETTING: Three general intensive care units. PATIENTS: Six hundred and ninety-one critically ill patients. INTERVENTIONS: Randomization of patients to receive blinded solutions of either 4% human albumin or normal saline for fluid resuscitation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Albumin was given to 339 patients and saline to 352. At baseline, both groups had a similar serum bicarbonate, albumin, and base excess levels. After randomization, bicarbonate and base excess increased significantly and similarly over time (p < .0001). On multivariate analysis, fluid resuscitation with albumin predicted a smaller increase in pH (p = .0051), bicarbonate (p = .034), and base excess (p = .015). The amount of fluid was an independent predictor of pH (p < .0001), serum chloride (p < .0001), calcium (p = .0001), bicarbonate (p = .0002), and base excess (p < .0001) on the first day of treatment. In patients who received >3 L of fluids in the first 24 hrs, albumin administration was associated with a significantly greater increase in serum chloride (p = .0026). Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and the presence of sepsis also independently predicted changes in several electrolytes and acid-base variables. CONCLUSIONS: When comparing albumin and saline, the choice and amount of resuscitation fluid are independent predictors of acid-base status and serum electrolytes. When large volumes are given, albumin administration leads to a higher chloride concentration. However, overall differences between the types of fluid are minor, whereas the volume of fluid administered is a much stronger predictor of such changes, which are also influenced by illness severity and the passage of time.

KW - Acid-base balance

KW - Acidemia

KW - Acidosis

KW - Albumin

KW - Chloride

KW - Ion gap

KW - Normal saline

KW - Sodium

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