Objective: Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer are psychologically stressful events, and hope and hardiness have been found to be important constructs for women with breast cancer. Therefore, this research sought to examine the relationships of perceived stress and hardiness with hope, and the buffering role of hardiness in the link between perceived stress and hope among Iranian women with breast cancer. Methods: Two hundred and twenty Iranian women with breast cancer from three hospitals completed online measures evaluating perceived stress, hardiness, and hope. Results: Using structural equation modelling, perceived stress was found to be negatively related to hope. Additionally, there was a positive relationship between hardiness and hope. The findings indicate that hardiness is a buffer in the link between perceived stress and hope for women with breast cancer. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the importance of hardiness in reducing the effects of perceived stress on hope and have clinical implications for health professionals.
- perceived stress
- women with breast cancer