The effects of Naja sumatrana venom cytotoxin, sumaCTX on alteration of the secretome in MCF-7 breast cancer cells following membrane permeabilization

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Naja sumatrana venom cytotoxin (sumaCTX) is a basic protein which belongs to three-finger toxin family. It has been shown to induce caspase-dependent, mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in MCF-7 cells at lower concentrations. This study aimed to investigate the alteration of secretome in MCF-7 cells following membrane permeabilization by high concentrations of sumaCTX, using label-free quantitative (LFQ) approach. The degree of membrane permeabilization of sumaCTX was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and calcein-propidium iodide (PI) assays. LDH and calcein-PI assays revealed time-dependent membrane permeabilization within a narrow concentration range. However, as toxin concentrations increased, prolonged exposure of MCF-7 cells to sumaCTX did not promote the progression of membrane permeabilization. The secretome analyses showed that membrane permeabilization was an event preceding the release of intracellular proteins. Bioinformatics analyses of the LFQ secretome revealed the presence of 105 significantly distinguished proteins involved in metabolism, structural supports, inflammatory responses, and necroptosis in MCF-7 cells treated with 29.8 μg/mL of sumaCTX. Necroptosis was presumably an initial stress response in MCF-7 cells when exposed to high sumaCTX concentration. Collectively, sumaCTX-induced the loss of membrane integrity in a concentration-dependent manner, whereby the cell death pattern of MCF-7 cells transformed from apoptosis to necroptosis with increasing toxin concentrations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)776-786
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2021


  • Cobra venom cytotoxin
  • Necroptosis
  • Secretome

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