The effects of ambient temperature on cerebrovascular mortality: An epidemiologic study in four climatic zones in China

Yanshen Zhang, Shanshan Li, Xiaochuan Pan, Shilu Tong, Jouni J K Jaakkola, Antonio Gasparrini, Yuming Guo, Sheng Wang

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Abstract

Background: Little evidence is available about the association between temperature and cerebrovascular mortality in China. This study aims to examine the effects of ambient temperature on cerebrovascular mortality in different climatic zones in China. Method: We obtained daily data on weather conditions, air pollution and cerebrovascular deaths from five cities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Wuhan, and Guangzhou) in China during 2004-2008. We examined city-specific associations between ambient temperature and the cerebrovascular mortality, while adjusting for season, long-term trends, day of the week, relative humidity and air pollution. We examined cold effects using a 1°C decrease in temperature below a city-specific threshold, and hot effects using a 1°C increase in temperature above a city-specific threshold. We used a meta-analysis to summarize the cold and hot effects across the five cities. Results: Beijing and Tianjin (with low mean temperature) had lower thresholds than Shanghai, Wuhan and Guangzhou (with high mean temperature). In Beijing, Tianjin, Wuhan and Guangzhou cold effects were delayed, while in Shanghai there was no or short induction. Hot effects were acute in all five cities. The cold effects lasted longer than hot effects. The hot effects were followed by mortality displacement. The pooled relative risk associated with a 1°C decrease in temperature below thresholds (cold effect) was 1.037(95% confidence interval (CI):1.020, 1.053). The pooled relative risk associated with a 1°C increase in temperature above thresholds (hot effect) was 1.014 (95% CI: 0.979, 1.050). Conclusion: Cold temperatures are significantly associated with cerebrovascular mortality in China, while hot effect is not significant. People in colder climate cities were sensitive to hot temperatures, while people in warmer climate cities were vulnerable to cold temperature.s

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA24
JournalEnvironmental Health: A Global Access Science Source
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cerebrovascular disease
  • Meta-analysis
  • Mortality
  • Temperature
  • Time series analysis

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