The effect of quadriceps contractures on gait and its adaptation strategy

Chea Chia Ping, Yap Yi Ting, Darwin Gouwanda, Alpha A. Gopalai, Chong Yu Zheng

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperOther

3 Citations (Scopus)


Muscle functions may adopt abnormal activation patterns to achieve ambulation in response to the contracture in the lower extremity muscles. This study implements a forward simulation based on dynamic optimization method to investigate gait compensation strategy adopted by a person with quadriceps contracture. A simulated controller optimization environment (SCONE) was used to solve the problem using the single shooting method. The results are in good agreement with experimental data and other studies. Some significant deviations were found, which were primarily attributed to the simplification of the musculoskeletal model used. The model exhibited reduced knee and hip flexion up to 90.63% and 77.72% at the impaired limb, which were potentially related to overactivity of rectus femoris and vasti, that generated excessive knee extension moment. The unimpaired limb exerted a greater vertical ground reaction force as a mean to maintain weight-bearing stability, in which gluteus maximus contributed a significant effort to support the contralateral limb, thus leading to an increase in knee flexion by 64.25%. The findings presented in this study provides another step forward in validating a physics-based simulation independent of the experimental data. The forward dynamic optimization is expected to be a valuable clinical and engineering tool in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings - 2020 IEEE EMBS Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, IECBES 2020
PublisherIEEE, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781728142456
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2021
EventIEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES) 2020 - Virtual, Langkawi Island, Malaysia
Duration: 1 Mar 20213 Mar 2021 (Proceedings)


ConferenceIEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES) 2020
Abbreviated titleICEBES 2020
CityVirtual, Langkawi Island
Internet address


  • forward dynamic simulation
  • gait adaptation
  • muscle contracture
  • stiff knee gait

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