The effect of non-verbal messages on Muslim tourists’ interaction adaptation: a case study of Halal restaurants in China

Naeem Akhtar, Jin Sun, Wasim Ahmad, Muhammad Nadeem Akhtar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


Halal tourism, an under-researched area, has gained significant popularity in recent years. The present study develops a research model of Halal restaurants’ non-verbal messages to tourists that lead to their offensiveness and their interaction adaptation, which determine their behaviors. In particular, this paper examines (1) how non-verbal messages—defined as those that are not delivered face-to-face—trigger consumers’ interaction adaptation; (2) how experience and credence attributes moderate the relationship between interaction adaptation and consumers’ offensiveness; and (3) the relational outcomes. This model is applied to Chinese settings, where data were collected from 622 Muslims tourists who visited Halal restaurants in three of China's cities (Beijing, Shanghai, and Xian). The findings reveal a positive effect of visual and audio messages on Muslim tourists’ interaction adaptation and the likelihood of their offensiveness. The paper also foound that tourists’ responded to their offensiveness in the form of negative electronic word-of-mouth (e-WOM) and lowered continuance purchase intentions. The experience and credence attributes positively moderate the relationship between interaction adaptation and consumer offensiveness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-22
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Destination Marketing and Management
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Audio message
  • Halal tourism
  • Interaction adaptation
  • Negative word-of-mouth
  • Offensiveness
  • Purchase intention
  • Visual message

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