We have investigated the effect of hypophysectomy on adult rat ovarian inhibin α and βA-subunit mRNA, serum inhibin, and circulating gonadotropin levels. Immediate declines in ovarian inhibin gene expression and serum inhibin were observed following hypophysectomy, with a nadir on day 4. However, inhibin synthesis determined by these parameters was still apparent at 16 days post-hypophysectomy. Gonadotropin levels were suppressed following hypophysectomy and the fall in inhibin production was highly correlated with disappearance of FSH from the circulation. This study demonstrates that removal of pituitary gonadotropin stimulation results in diminished ovarian inhibin synthesis and provides further evidence indicating that FSH stimulates granulosa cell inhibin synthesis by enhancing inhibin gene transcription.