The effect of gender role on attitudes towards inequitable gender norms among Malaysian men

Noraida Endut, Reyhaneh Bagheri, Azwan Azman, Intan H. M. Hashim, Nor Hafizah Selamat, Leila Mohajer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) measure is the most frequently tested gender role instrument and one of the most investigated psychometric constructs in general. However, its application to the Malaysian setting as well as its relation to gender equality attitudes is rarely explored. Therefore, this research guided by the social constructionist perspective aims to examine the relationship between gender role (masculinity and femininity) and attitudes towards inequitable gender norms. A sample of 168 Malaysian men completed the two measures of Gender Equitable Men scale and the BSRI. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between gender role and attitudes towards inequitable gender norms. In contrast to the femininity gender role, masculinity gender role in men contributes to gender inequality attitudes. The findings in this study are largely supporting the theory that masculinity may be a key construct in the men’s negative attitudes about gender equality, which has been shown to be an important predictor of achieving women’s right and empowerment. In this article, we highlight the importance of socialization processes in context and consider how the social construction of gender affects attitudes about sexuality, reproductive health, gender roles and violence against women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2113-2136
Number of pages24
JournalSexuality and Culture
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Bem sex role inventory (BSRI)
  • GEM scale
  • Gender role
  • Inequitable gender norms

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