The Effect of Dryer Inlet and Outlet Air Temperatures and Protectant Solids on the Survival of Lactococcus lactis during Spray Drying

Amir Ghandi, Ian B. Powell, Xiao Dong Chen, Benu Adhikari

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38 Citations (Scopus)


The influence of spray-drying conditions, inlet air temperature (130°C to 200°C), outlet air temperature (38°C to 65°C), drying medium (air and nitrogen) and milk-derived protectants (10%, 15%, and 25% lactose; 5% and 10% sodium caseinate; 10%, 25%, and 35% lactose:sodium caseinate (Lac:NaCas, 3:1)) on the survival of Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris was studied using a laboratory-scale spray dryer. An inlet air temperature of 130°C and 65°C as the outlet air temperature maintained high survival of the bacteria without sacrificing low moisture content. Inlet air temperature, previously considered to have no significant effect, was shown to play an important role in the survival of bacteria during spray drying. A mixture of Lac:NaCas (3:1) showed a better protective effect on the survival of bacteria than lactose and sodium caseinate individually, and this effect increased with increasing amount of protectant. The results were generalized by substituting whey protein isolate for sodium caseinate. Finally, the positive effect of elimination of oxygen was demonstrated both by replacing air with nitrogen and adding ascorbic acid as an oxygen scavenger to improve survival of the bacteria. Adding an oxygen scavenger would be a better candidate for industrial application considering the potential high cost of manufacturing if nitrogen was used as the atomization and/or drying medium.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1649-1657
Number of pages9
JournalDrying Technology
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Drying/atomization medium
  • Inlet air temperature
  • Lactococcus
  • Outlet air temperature
  • Oxygen injury
  • Spray drying
  • Survival

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