The effect of asymmetrical gait induced by unilateral knee brace on the knee flexor and extensor muscles

Yi Ting Yap, Darwin Gouwanda, Alpha A. Gopalai, Yu Zheng Chong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Asymmetrical stiff knee gait is a mechanical pathology that can disrupt lower extremity muscle coordination. A better understanding of this condition can help identify potential complications. This study proposes the use of dynamic musculoskeletal modelling simulation to investigate the effect of induced mechanical perturbation on the kneeand to examine the muscle behaviour without invasive technique. Thirty-eight healthy participants were recruited. Asymmetrical gait was simulated using knee brace. Knee joint angle, joint moment and knee flexor and extensor muscle forces were computed using OpenSim. Differences inmuscle force between normal and abnormal conditions were investigated using ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test.The results revealed that braced knee experienced limited range of motion with smaller flexion moment occuring at late swing phase. Significant differences were found in all flexormuscle forces and in several extensor muscle forces (p<0.05). Normal knee produced larger flexor muscle force than braced knee. Braced knee generated the largest extensor muscle force at early swing phase. In summary, musculoskeletal modelling simulation can be a computational tool to map and detect the differences between normal and asymmetrical gaits. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)711-720
Number of pages10
JournalMedical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • Asymmetrical gait
  • Dynamic musculoskeletal modelling simulation
  • Joint moment
  • Knee joint
  • Muscle activation force
  • Stiff knee gait

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