The economic feasibility assessment of using tropical fruit wastes in production of fish feed for the Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides (Bleeker, 1854)

Yukichika Kawata, Fatimah Md Yusoff, Nicholas M.H. Khong, Dini W.A. Umi

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5 Citations (Scopus)


Fruit wastes, including the rind, skin, pulp, and seed, contain highly nutritious organic materials; however, they are often discarded without utilization. In countries such as Japan, these compounds have been used as ingredients in fish feed, although economic feasibility assessments are not generally performed. While Asian countries produce approximately 86% of tropical fruit, waste utilization in fish feed is uncommon. This study aimed to formulate fish feed containing tropical fruit waste and examine the related economic feasibility. Grated coconut, pineapple skin/crown, and jackfruit skin/pulp from three locations were selected as inexpensive and readily available wastes, and 16 different feeds (including control) were formulated to satisfy the nutritional requirements of the Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides). The results demonstrated that fruit waste has high nutritional content, such as lipids and proteins, which are suitable for fish feeds. The preliminary economic analysis indicated that seven of the 15 fruit-containing feed treatments were economically feasible. Thus, the utilization of tropical fruit wastes as fish feed is promising. Aquaculture verification tests should be conducted in future studies to examine whether there is improvement/deterioration in morbidity and fish meat quality, among other characteristics, which could also be factors that increase or decrease costs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1026-1036
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Material Cycles and Waste Management
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


  • Aquaculture
  • Fish feed
  • Fruit wastes
  • Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides)

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