This review explores the dynamic relationship between bone and bone marrow in the genesis and regulation of adult haematopoiesis and will provide an overview of the haematopoietic hierarchical system. This will include the haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and its niches, as well as discuss emerging evidence of the reciprocal interplay between bone and bone marrow, and support of the pleiotropic role played by bone cells in the regulation of HSC proliferation, differentiation and function. In addition, this review will present demineralized bone matrix as a unique acellular matrix platform that permits the generation of ectopic de novo bone and bone marrow and provides a means of investigating the temporal sequence of bone and bone marrow regeneration. It is anticipated that the utilization of this matrix-based approach will help researchers in gaining deeper insights into the major events leading to adult haematopoiesis in the bone marrow. Furthermore, this model may potentially offer new avenues to manipulate the HSC niche and hence influence the functional output of the haematopoietic system.