The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire for older drivers: Do errors, violations and lapses change over time?

S. Koppel, A. N. Stephens, J. L. Charlton, M. Di Stefano, P. Darzins, M. Odell, S. Marshall

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11 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of the current study was to examine how self-reported aberrant driving behaviours change across a three time-points in a group of older drivers. Two hundred and twenty-seven older drivers (males = 69.6%) from the Candrive/Ozcandrive longitudinal study completed the Driving Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) each yearacross three time-points (i.e., Year 1, Year 2, Year 3). At the third time-point, older drivers ranged in age from 77 to 96 years (M = 81.74 years; SD = 3.44 years). A longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis showed that a modified 21-item, 3-factor (errors, lapses and violations) DBQ was invariant across the time period, suggesting that the structure of the questionnaire was stable across each time-point. Further, multiple domain latent growth analysis on the resultant factors for errors, lapses and violations showed that the frequency of errors remained similar across the three-year period, while violations and lapses showed very marginal decreases in frequency. These changes were independent of the absolute number of these behaviours; Drivers with higher violations or lapses in Year one, showed similar decreases in frequency as those who self-reported lower frequencies of the behaviours. These results suggest that the DBQ is a reliable tool to measure older drivers’ self-reported aberrant driving behaviours, and that these behaviours do not show much change across time. Future research should validate the self-reported responses from the DBQ with more objective measures such as those collected through naturalistic driving study (NDS) methodology or on-road driving tasks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)171-178
Number of pages8
JournalAccident Analysis and Prevention
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2018


  • Aberrant driving behaviour
  • Errors
  • Lapses
  • Older drivers
  • Road safety
  • Violations

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