Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are characterized by a semi-invariant TCR that recognizes Vitamin B metabolite Ags presented by the MHC-related molecule MR1. Their Ag restriction determines a unique developmental lineage, imbuing a tissue-homing, preprimed phenotype with antimicrobial function. A growing body of literature indicates that MR1-restricted T cells are more diverse than the MAIT term implies. Namely, it is increasingly clear that TCR a- And TCR b-chain diversity within the MR1-restricted repertoire provides a potential mechanism of Ag discrimination, and context-dependent functional variation suggests a role for MR1-restricted T cells in diverse physiological settings. In this paper, we summarize MR1-restricted T cell biology, with an emphasis on TCR diversity, Ag discrimination, and functional heterogeneity. The Journal of Immunology.