The cost effectiveness of bevacizumab when added to capecitabine, with or without mitomycin-C, in first line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: Results from the Australasian phase III MAX study

Hannah E. Carter, Diana Zannino, R. John Simes, Deborah J. Schofield, Kirsten Howard, John R. Zalcberg, Timothy J. Price, Niall C. Tebbutt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Background Based on the clinical data, bevacizumab has been approved in Australia and globally for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. However, limited evidence exists for its cost-effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of adding bevacizumab to capecitabine monotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, using data from the prospective economic evaluation conducted alongside the MAX trial. Methods Individual patient level data on resource use and progression free survival were prospectively collected in the phase III MAX trial. Resource use data were collected for the period between randomisation and disease progression, and unit costs were assigned from the perspective of the Australian health care funder. Effectiveness was measured in quality adjusted progression free survival years, with utility scores obtained from both the community valued EQ-5D questionnaire and the patient valued UBQ-C questionnaire. Progression free survival was used as a secondary effectiveness measure. Results The addition of bevacizumab to capecitabine monotherapy cost approximately $192,156 (95% confidence interval [CI], $135,619 to $326,894) per quality adjusted progression free survival year gained when using publicly listed pharmaceutical prices and utility values from the EQ-5D questionnaire. This decreased to $149,455 (95% CI, $100,356 to $245,910) when values from the UBQ-C questionnaire were applied. The incremental cost per progression free survival year was $145,059 (95% CI, $106,703 to $233,225). Conclusions Bevacizumab was not found to be cost effective at its listed price, based on results from the MAX trial.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)535-543
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Cancer
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Bevacizumab
  • Cancer
  • Colorectal
  • Cost
  • Effectiveness
  • MAX

Cite this