The contribution of music vs instructions in the Musical Mood Induction Procedure

Simon R. Lenton, Paul R. Martin

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20 Citations (Scopus)


The relative contribution of the instructions and the music to the effects of the Musical Mood Induction Procedure (MMIP) were investigated. Using an experimental procedure which minimised covert experimenter bias, subjects performed under both elation and depression mood inductions in one of four conditions: music present or absent by mood change instructions present or absent, using a crossover design. Results indicated that instructions were both necessary and sufficient to produce change on mood sensitive measures. Mood change effects were reduced by controlling for the effect of subjects who responded so as not to 'louse-up' the experiment. The MMIP seems to be much less musical than the name implies. Further research is needed to determine which aspects of the instructions contribute most to the changes on mood sensitive measures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)623-625
Number of pages3
JournalBehaviour Research and Therapy
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1991
Externally publishedYes

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