The construct validity of the multidimensional AIMES connection to nature scale: measuring human relationships with nature

Julia Meis-Harris, Kim Borg, Bradley S. Jorgensen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Over the last decades, a plethora of nature connectedness measures have been developed, including unidimensional scales and others claiming to be multidimensional scales. Recently, Ives et al. (2018) conceptualised connection with nature as five general categories including attachment, cognition/identity, materialistic consumption, experiential components, and spiritual connection to nature. The current research presents a theory-driven approach to scale construction capturing the five factors similar to those described by Ives et al. (2018); the AIMES scale. The scale was developed in cooperation with practitioners and academics working in the field of human-nature interactions and its construct validity was tested with a representative sample of 3090 Victorians. Confirmatory factor analysis reinforced the five-factor model, showing that all factors correlated but were statistically distinct from one another. The second-order factor model also provided support for connection with nature as an overarching variable that can find expression to various degrees in the five primary factors. Finally, we found associations between the AIMES-factors and conceptually related measures of environmental values, environmental behaviours, environmental awareness, and time spent in nature. A short version of the scale is also presented for use in evaluation where brevity is required without compromising reliability and validity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111695
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Environmental Management
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020


  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Connection with nature
  • Multidimensional scale
  • Policy tool
  • Scale development

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