Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) utilize a type III secretion system to deliver virulence-associated effector proteins to the host cell. Four proteins, EspA, EspB, EspD, and Tir, which are integral to the formation of characteristic 'attaching and effacing' (A/E) intestinal lesions, are known to be exported via the EPEC type III secretion system. Recent work demonstrated that EspA is a major component of a filamentous structure, elaborated on the surface of EPEC, which is required for translocation of EspB and Tir. The carboxyl terminus of EspA is predicted to comprise an α- helical region, which demonstrates heptad periodicity whereby positions a and d in the heptad repeat unit abcdefg are occupied by hydrophobic residues, indicating a propensity for coiled-coil interactions. Here we demonstrate multimeric EspA isoforms in EPEC culture supernatants and EspA:EspA interaction on solid phase. Non-conservative amino acid substitution of specific EspA heptad residues generated EPEC mutants defective in filament assembly but which retained the ability to induce ArE lesions; additional mutation totally abolished EspA filament assembly and ArE lesion formation. These results demonstrate a similarity to flagellar biosynthesis and indicate that the coiled-coil domain of EspA is required for assembly of the EspA filament-associated type III secretion translocon.