The Coagulant Factor Xa Induces Protease-Activated Receptor-1 and Annexin A2–Dependent Airway Smooth Muscle Cytokine Production and Cell Proliferation

Michael Schuliga, Simon G Royce, Shenna Langenbach, Asres Berhan, Trudi Harris, Christine R Keenan, Alastair G Stewart

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13 Citations (Scopus)


During asthma exacerbation, plasma circulating coagulant factor X (FX) enters the inflamed airways and is activated (FXa). FXa may have an important role in asthma, being involved in thrombin activation and an agonist of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1). Extracellular annexin A2 and integrins are also implicated in PAR-1 signaling. In this study, the potential role of PAR-1 in mediating the effects of FXa on human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell cytokine production and proliferation was investigated. FXa (5-50 nM), but not FX, stimulated increases in ASM IL-6 production and cell number after 24- and 48-hour incubation, respectively (P < 0.05; n = 5). FXa (15 nM) also stimulated increases in the levels of mRNA for cytokines (IL-6), cell cycle-related protein (cyclin D1), and proremodeling proteins (FGF-2, PDGF-B, CTGF, SM22, and PAI-1) after 3-hour incubation (P < 0.05; n = 4). The actions of FXa were insensitive to inhibition by hirudin (1 U/ml), a selective thrombin inhibitor, but were attenuated by SCH79797 (100 nM), a PAR-1 antagonist, or Cpd 22 (1 µM), an inhibitor of integrin-linked kinase. The selective targeting of PAR-1, annexin A2, or β1-integrin by small interfering RNA and/or by functional blocking antibodies also attenuated FXa-evoked responses. In contrast, the targeting of annexin A2 did not inhibit thrombin-stimulated ASM function. In airway biopsies of patients with asthma, FXa and annexin A2 were detected in the ASM bundle by immunohistochemistry. These findings establish FXa as a potentially important asthma mediator, stimulating ASM function through actions requiring PAR-1 and annexin A2 and involving integrin coactivation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)200-209
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • airway wall remodeling
  • annexin A2 hetero-tetramer
  • asthma
  • intergin
  • thrombin

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