The clustering of Cardiovascular, Renal, Adipo-Metabolic Eye and Liver disease with type 2 diabetes

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Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, fatty liver disease, eye and foot disease. But equally, these conditions are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Rather than being simply considered complications of diabetes, as exists within a ‘pure’ type 1 diabetes paradigm, both type 2 diabetes and its comorbidities are primarily caused by a failure to efficiently sequester excess energy leading to the accumulation of sick fat (adiposopathy). Type 2 diabetes is a symptom of a chronic disease complex, just as cardiovascular, renal, eye, foot and/or liver disease, are. In addition, each of these conditions feed forward so that dysfunction in one system accelerates dysfunction in another, partly through their shared pathogenesis and partly due dysfunction that follows in their wake. This review will explore the sticky, brittle conglomeration of CArdiac, Renal, Adipo-Metabolic, Eye and Liver disease (hereafter collectively known as CARAMEL disease) that is coincident in most patients with type 2 diabetes and contextualise the recent changes in diabetes guidelines that now specifically focus on identifying and aggressively managing these high-risk individuals with it.

Original languageEnglish
Article number154961
Number of pages6
JournalMetabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Diabetic complications
  • Diabetic eye disease
  • Diabetic foot disease
  • Diabetic kidney disease
  • Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease
  • Type 2 diabetes

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