Trophoblast growth and invasion of the uterine endometrium are critical events during placentation and are tightly regulated by locally produced factors. Abnormal placentation can result in early miscarriage or preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, leading to impaired fetal and/or maternal health. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is involved in cancer cell migration and invasion, processes which are critical during placentation but unlike in cancer, trophoblast invasion is highly regulated. CSPG4 expression and function in trophoblast is unknown. We determined CSPG4 expression in human first trimester placenta and implantation sites, and investigated whether CSPG4 influenced proliferation, migration and invasion of a human extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cell line (HTR8/SVneo cells) as a model for extravillous trophoblast (EVT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunoreactive CSPG4 localized to EVT cells in the trophoblast shell, subpopulations of interstitial EVT cells within the decidua and cytotrophoblast cells in placental villi. In HTR8/SVneo cells, siRNA knockdown of CSPG4 stimulated proliferation and decreased migration/invasion. In primary first trimester placental villi explants two cytokines, interleukin 11 (IL11) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) with known roles in trophoblast function, stimulated CSPG4 mRNA expression and immunoreactive protein in the cyotrophoblast. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This is the first demonstration of the production and function of CSPG4 in human placentation. These data suggest that locally produced CSPG4 stimulates human EVT migration and invasion and suggests that IL11 and LIF regulate villous cytotrophoblast differentiation towards the invasive phenotype at least in part via CSPG4.
- Chrondroitin sulfate proteoglycan