The anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitides are autoimmune diseases associated with significant morbidity and mortality. They often affect the kidney causing rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. While signalling by complement anaphylatoxin C5a though the C5a receptor is important in this disease, the role of the anaphylatoxin C3a signalling via the C3a receptor (C3aR) is not known. Using two different murine models of anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) glomerulonephritis, one mediated by passive transfer of anti-MPO antibodies, the other by cell-mediated immunity, we found that the C3aR did not alter histological disease severity. However, it promoted macrophage recruitment to the inflamed glomerulus and inhibited the generation of MPO-ANCA whilst not influencing T cell autoimmunity. Thus, whilst the C3aR modulates some elements of disease pathogenesis, overall it is not critical in effector responses and glomerular injury caused by autoimmunity to MPO.