This study describes for the first time the ability of the novel BRCA1-binding protein 2 (BRAP2) to inhibit the nuclear import of specific viral proteins dependent on phosphorylation. Ectopic expression of BRAP2 in transfected African green monkey kidney COS-7 cells was found to significantly reduce nuclear localization signal (NLS)-dependent nuclear accumulation of either simian virus SV40 large-tumor antigen (T-ag) or human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase processivity factor ppUL44; this was also observed in HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells on induction of BRAP2 expression by vitamin D3 treatment. BRAP2 inhibition of nuclear accumulation was dependent on phosphorylation sites flanking the respective NLSs, where substitution of the cyclin-dependent kinase site T124 of T-ag with Ala or Asp prevented or enhanced BRAP2 inhibition of nuclear import, respectively. Substitution of T427 within the NLS of ppUL44 gave similar results, whereas no effect of BRAP2 was observed on nuclear targeting of other viral proteins, such as herpes simplex virus-1 pUL30, which lacks a phosphorylation site near its NLS, and the human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat protein. Pulldowns/AlphaScreen assays indicated direct, high-affinity binding of BRAP2(442-592) to T-ag(111-135), strictly dependent on negative charge at T124 and the NLS. All results are consistent with BRAP2 being a novel, phosphorylation-regulated negative regulator of nuclear import, with potential as an antiviral agent.-Fulcher, A. J., Roth, D. M., Fatima, S., Alvisi, G., and Jans, D. A. The BRCA-1 binding protein BRAP2 is a novel, negative regulator of nuclear import of viral proteins, dependent on phosphorylation flanking the nuclear localization signal.