Cartier Island and the surrounding reef is an isolated Australian Territory situated in the Timor Sea. Little is known about the avifauna of the reef system and the adjacent waters. Here we summarise all known ornithological records from the Island and detail the results of twice-annual bird surveys conducted within the Cartier Island Commonwealth Marine Reserve between 2010 and 2014. By the conclusion of the surveys, a total of 34 bird species had been recorded within the Reserve. The Crested Tern Thalasseus bergii was shown to breed on the Island in small numbers. Several additional species of seabird and small numbers of shorebirds are regular visitors. Most other species occur as occasional visitors or vagrants.