Diabetic nephropathy shows a higher incidence in male subjects, which may in part be owing to genetic factors. The angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2), present in the renal glomerulus, may oppose the deleterious effects of the type I receptor (AT1) through vasodilatation and growth inhibition. We determined whether the functional intronic G1675A or A1818T polymorphism of the X-chromosomal AT2 gene is associated with blood pressure levels or with kidney function. We genotyped 996 (538 female/458 male subjects) Finnish patients with type I diabetes from the FinnDiane-study in a cross-sectional study. DNA samples were amplified using standard polymerase chain reaction protocol and the genotypes were determined by the minisequencing method. Male patients with the AA haplotype had a lower glomerular filtration rate (83 ± 32 vs 94 ± 34 ml min-1 1.73 m-2, P = 0.008) and a higher pulse pressure (PP) (62 ± 18 vs 57 ± 15 mm Hg, P = 0.002; P < 0.05 after adjustment for age) than did those with the GT haplotype. No differences between the genotypes or haplotypes and these variables were evident in females. In males, the G1675A was also an independent variable in a linear regression analysis with PP (r2 = 0.16, coefficient = 3.64, s.e.m. = 1.38, P < 0.01) as the dependent variable. These data suggest a gender-specific association between the AT2 gene and kidney function and premature aging of the arterial tree in patients with type I diabetes.
- Angiotensin II type 2 receptor gene
- Diabetic nephropathy
- Type I diabetes