Aims and objectives: To determine the prevalence and type of occupational injuries in nurses and their associations with workload, working shift, and nurses’ individual and organisational factors. Background: Nurses are vulnerable to occupational injuries due to the nature of their job. Design: A cross-sectional correlational design (based on STROBE Statement) was conducted. Methods: This study was conducted among 616 nurses of four public hospitals located in four different provinces in Iran. Data were collected using three questionnaires including an organisational and demographic questionnaire, an occupational injuries checklist and the NASA-TLX questionnaire (about mental workload). Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA and multivariate logistic regression were used in SPSS version 23.0 for statistical analysis. Results: Blood and body fluid exposures had the highest prevalence (47.4%) among all injuries. Needlestick injuries showed a significant relation with gender, age, number of shifts in a month and work experience. With increase in mental workload, needlestick injuries increase by 35%. Also, injuries reported by nurses working in rotating shifts were 15%–53% more than nurses working in fixed shifts. Conclusion: Working in rotating shifts and work overload was significantly related to all injuries. Decreasing nurses’ mental workload, introducing guidelines and efficient training in shift work schedules can help decrease occupational injuries among nurses. Relevance to clinical practice: In order to reduce occupational injuries among nurses, in addition to incorporating advanced management and technology, it is necessary to pay attention to psychosocial, individual and organisational risk factors related to occupational injuries and their frequency in nurses. Also, reducing personnel's mental and occupational pressure should be considered.