The association of smoking status with glycemic control, metabolic profile and diabetic complications– Results of the Australian National Diabetes Audit (ANDA)

N. Szwarcbard, M. Villani, A. Earnest, J. Flack, S. Andrikopoulos, N. Wischer, G. Soldatos, D. Gasevic, S. Zoungas

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17 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Tobacco smoking and diabetes mellitus contribute significantly to the overall health burden and mortality of Australians. We aimed to assess the relationship of smoking with glycemic control, metabolic profile and complications in Australian patients living with diabetes. Methods: We analysed the 2011–2017 biennial Australian National Diabetes Audit cross-sectional data. Patients were classified as current, past or never smokers. Linear (or quantile) and logistic regression models were used to assess for associations. Results: Data from 15,352 patients were analysed, including 72.2% with type 2 diabetes. Current smokers comprised 13.5% of the study population. Current and past smokers had a median HbA1c that was 0.49% and 0.14% higher than never smokers, respectively, as well as higher triglyceride and lower HDL levels (all p values < .0001). Compared to never smokers, current smokers had higher odds of severe hypoglycemia and current and past smokers had higher odds of myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, lower limb amputation, erectile dysfunction and peripheral neuropathy (all p values ≤.001), with no significant change over time. Conclusion: When compared to never smokers, current and past smokers had poorer glycemic and lipid control and higher odds of macrovascular and microvascular complications. Despite this, current smoking remains prevalent among Australians with diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107626
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Diabetes and its Complications
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2020


  • Complications
  • Diabetes
  • HbA
  • Macrovascular
  • Microvascular
  • Smoking

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