The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the relationship between body composition and foot structure and function. Six electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid AMED, CINAHL, Scopus and The Cochrane Library) and reference lists from relevant papers were searched on 2 September 2013. Sixteen papers that reported on the association between body composition and foot structure and function met our inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The evidence indicates that obesity is strongly associated with planus (low-arched) foot posture, pronated dynamic foot function and increased plantar pressures when walking. However, there is limited evidence to support an association between other body composition measures, such as fat mass, with foot structure or function.