The adaptive immune system consists of T and B cells that express clonally distributed antigen receptors. To achieve functional adaptive immune responses, antigen-specific T cell populations are stimulated by professional antigen-presenting cells like dendritic cells (DCs), which provide crucial stimulatory signals for efficient expansion and development of effector functions. Antigen-specific B cells receive costimulatory signals from helper T cells to stimulate affinity maturation and isotype switching. Here we elaborate on the interactions between DCs, T cells and B cells, and on the important signals for efficient induction of adaptive immune responses.
van Zelm, M. C., Den Haan, J. M., & Arens, R. (2014). The activation of the adaptive immune system: Cross-talk between antigen-presenting cells, T cells and B cells. Immunology Letters, 162(2), 103-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.imlet.2014.10.011