The variability in embryonic stem (ES) cell culture is due primarily to serum. Serum is typically produced in large batches from many animals. However, samples may differ depending on the age and diet of the animals, the country of origin, and other factors creating lot-to-lot variations. Some vendors test FBS lots for compatibility with ES cell culture. Many laboratories prefer to test serum batches themselves to identify the lot giving optimal growth. In this protocol, small quantities of specific serum batches are obtained from different suppliers and tested for their ability to support ES cells in an undifferentiated state. A complete test includes the serum batches’ influence on plating efficiency, cell morphology, toxicity, and, if possible, their ability to support generation of chimeras.