Test anxiety inventory: 30 years later

Derek D Szafranski, Terri L Barrera, Peter Joseph Norton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


Research suggests that test anxiety is associated with a number of maladaptive factors. The majority of test anxiety research includes the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) as a primary outcome variable. However, the TAI was normed on college undergraduates in 1980. The academic landscape has altered in a variety of ways in the past 30 years, which may result in out-of-date norms. This study examined changes in TAI scores in college undergraduates (n =437) as well as convergent validity with measures of trait anxiety and academic performance. Results indicated increases in TAI scores for females while holding constant for males. Additionally, females and males displayed positive correlations between the TAI and state-trait anxiety inventory, while only females displayed a significant negative correlation between the TAI and grade point average. Data provide evidence of changes in TAI scores. As a result, researchers should be careful when drawing conclusions based on original TAI norms, especially in the case of female undergraduates
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)667 - 677
Number of pages11
JournalAnxiety, Stress and Coping
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes

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