Temporal Trends in the Incidence, Characteristics, and Outcomes of Hanging-Related Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Saeed Alqahtani, Ziad Nehme, Brett Williams, Stephen Bernard, Karen Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Aim: The aim of this study was to describe temporal trends in the incidence, characteristics, and outcomes of hanging-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Method: A retrospective study of all hanging-related OHCA in Victoria, Australia, between 2000 and 2017 was conducted. Trends in incidence, characteristics, and outcomes were assessed using linear regression and a non-parametric test for trend, as appropriate. Predictors of survival to hospital discharge were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Between 2000 and 2017, emergency medical services (EMS)-attended 3,891 cases of hanging-related OHCA, of which 876 cases (23%) received an attempted resuscitation. The overall incidence rate of EMS-attended cases was 3.8 cases per 100,000 person-years increasing from 2.3 cases per 100,000 person-years in 2000 to 4.7 cases in 2017 (p for trend <0.001). Incidence rates increased approximately two-fold in young adults (18–44 years) and three-fold in middle aged adults (45–64 years). Despite improvement in the rate of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (from 49% in 2000–2005 to 75% in 2012–2017), the survival to hospital discharge rate remained unchanged (3% overall). Among adult survivors with 12-month follow-up (n = 10), five patients responded to telephone interviews. Of those, three (60%) reported severe functional disability. Five patients responded to telephone interviews, of which 3 patients reported severe functional disability. An initial shockable rhythm (OR 23.17, 95% CI: 5.75, 93.36) or pulseless electrical activity (OR 13.14, 95% CI: 4.79, 36.03) were associated with survival. Conclusion: The incidence of hanging-related OHCA doubled over the 18 year period with no change to survival rates. New preventative strategies are needed to reduce the community burden of these events.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)369-377
Number of pages9
JournalPrehospital Emergency Care
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 3 May 2020


  • cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • emergency medical services
  • hanging
  • out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
  • quality of life

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