TEM-based phase retrieval of p-n junction wafers using the transport of intensity equation

Timothy Petersen, V Keast, K Johnson, S Duvall

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19 Citations (Scopus)


Two cross-sectional specimens of pattered silicon wafers implanted with either arsenic or phosphor are investigated in the transmission electron microscope ( TEM). Phase retrieval using the transport of intensity equation ( TIE) is suggested as a means for nano-scale sensing of dopants in such p- n junction wafers. Improvements in TIE phase retrieval are proposed and implemented using a through-focus series of large numbers of images. Polynomial fitting to robustly estimate the required intensity defocus-derivative is shown to enhance data quality, resulting in phase maps that portray detail over a broad range of spatial-frequencies in a realistic manner.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3565 - 3578
Number of pages14
JournalPhilosophical Magazine
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Externally publishedYes

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