Technical evolution for the identification of Xenes: From microscopy to spectroscopy

Mengting Zhao, Haifeng Feng, Yi Du

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (Book)Researchpeer-review


Having the ideal electronic properties and promising applications in various areas, Xenes have been studied intensively as a hot topic from the past decade. From silicene to tellurene, all nine varieties of Xenes have been synthesized and identified successfully by over 10 measurement means. In the incipient stage of Xenes study, in situ scanning tunneling microscopy and angular-resolved photoemission spectroscopy played a dominant role in exploring crystal and electronic structure due to the limited molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) synthetic method and instability of some Xenes (e.g., silicene) in air. In the development of Xenes, more and more Xenes beyond silicene have been synthesized successfully by other methods instead of MBE, which leads involving other identification technological means into Xenes study possible, such as transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and in situ Raman. Here, we summarize the technical evolution of Xene researches focusing on both the microscopic and spectroscopic methods.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationXenes
Subtitle of host publication2D Synthetic Materials Beyond Graphene
EditorsAlessandro Molle, Carlo Grazianetti
PublisherElsevier - Mosby
Number of pages30
ISBN (Electronic)9780128238240
ISBN (Print)9780128238387
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameWoodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials


  • atomic structure
  • electronic structure
  • Raman
  • STM
  • technical evolution
  • Xenes

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