Scientific discoveries over the past decade have shifted the stereotypical view of androgens as male hormones and estrogens as female hormones. It is now recognized that a delicate balance of both androgens and estrogens, a process controlled by aromatase, is fundamental for normal testicular development and fertility. While the site-specific actions of these two classes of steroids within the testis are becoming better documented, the role and regulation of estrogen biosynthesis by aromatase within the testis remains unclear. The majority of data comes from a wide range of animal species, particularly genetically modified mouse models; aromatase knockout (ArKO) and overexpressing (AROM(+)), with limited information on humans, however the existence of congenital aromatase mutations has provided some insight into its effects on individual parameters of the testis. This review dissects out the localization and activity of aromatase in the healthy and diseased testis, addresses the cellular insult to the testis that occurs in its absence and over abundance and proposes potential molecular mechanisms of aromatase regulation in the testis.