TDM is dead. Long live TCI!

Nick Holford, Guangda Ma, David Metz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


Twenty years ago, target concentration intervention (TCI) was distinguished from therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). It was proposed that TCI would bring more clinical benefit because of the precision of the approach and the ability to link TCI to principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to predict the dose required by an individual (1). We examine the theory and clinical trial evidence supporting the benefits of TCI over TDM and conclude that in the digital age TDM should be abandoned and replaced by TCI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1406-1413
Number of pages8
JournalBritish Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022
Externally publishedYes

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